Ngā Tapuwae - the Footprints - is the newsletter of Archives New Zealand. It tells the stories of our people, our work and achievements.
Welcome to Ngā Tapuwae, the newsletter that gives you an insight of what we have been up to at Archives New Zealand.
In this issue we are delighted to tell you about the new Government Digital Archive. Government Budget money of $12.6 million gives the green light to Archives New Zealand and the National Library to develop and implement a full-scale digital archive, ensuring the ongoing security of public sector digital information.
This development will give Archives New Zealand the capability to manage digital archives reflecting our position as the government’s lead agency on records and archives management and preservation.
It’s been about six months since material from the Alexander Turnbull Library and historical documents for Land Information New Zealand came to our Wellington repository and it’s great to read about the success of these ventures.
Some of the earliest Department of Internal Affairs records are now more accessible thanks to the good efforts of our Arrangement and Description staff, and we share their story with you.
Improving services to our customers is a top priority for Archives New Zealand. The developments to our online repository search systems is one of the ways to ensure readers can get what they want when they want it, and faster. The new search system for Archway is being piloted in our Christchurch office and you can read more about this.
The Chief Archivist’s Report on the State of Government Recordkeeping for 2009 was tabled in Parliament this month. This fifth report since the passing of the Public Records Act in 2005 identifies some key opportunities for public sector recordkeeping.
The report is available on our website.
The signing of a letter of commitment between Archives New Zealand and Te Reo o Taranaki Charitable Trust takes our relationship with Māori to a greater strength. Over the past two years the department and the trust have worked together to make valuable records relating to Taranaki Māori more accessible. This work will continue, making the language of the 1800s accessible to future generations.
The Government Recordkeeping team have a new training course guaranteed to take the strain out of digitisation. Plan before you scan helps public sector offices to become wiser in the ways of digitising their records.
You can also read about a new working group to preserve heritage documents, and other articles about our services within the wider community.
The department’s integration with the National Library and the Department of Internal Affairs is progressing well and on time. The updated legislation soon to be introduced into Parliament ensures the statutory independence of the Chief Archivist and the role of Archives New Zealand as a national institution.
My commitment along with that of the chief executives of the other two agencies involved is to ensure the services we provide today will be better tomorrow.
I will continue to seek input from stakeholders and want to meet as many of you as possible. I have met stakeholders in Wellington and Auckland, and in August I plan to visit both Christchurch and Dunedin.
More information about the integration process and timeline is available at: http://www.integration.dia.govt.nz/integration.nsf
Acting Chief Executive and Chief Archivist, Archives New Zealand
Government has allocated $12.6 million of Budget money to Archives New Zealand and the National Library over the next four years to develop and implement a full-scale industrial digital archive.
“We aim to achieve a cost-effective, efficient and sustainable digital archive to ensure the ongoing security of public sector digital information including our own,” says Archives New Zealand Acting Chief Executive Greg Goulding.
Greg Goulding says, “this is a hugely important development for Archives New Zealand. Having the capability to manage digital archives is fundamental to the department’s continued position as the government’s lead agency on records and archives management and preservation.
“The new archive means we can take in large-scale transfers of government agency digital records, such as email messages, videos, databases and electronic documents. We’ll then actively preserve and maintain these records so they remain accessible to agencies and the public into the future.
“The job to develop and implement the digital archive over the next four years now begins in earnest. The new archive will utilise Archives New Zealand’s existing infrastructure and we will work with the National Library of New Zealand to build on functions developed for the Library’s Digital Heritage Archive.
“This means we will not be starting from scratch. We will be sharing infrastructure, pooling expertise, saving costs and building on a solid foundation which already exists. Having looked at other international systems we decided to use the core technologies already used by the National Library."
Archives New Zealand’s online search engine Archway will be extended to manage the necessary digital record metadata, and the department will develop new tools around transfer and security in consultation with agencies.
A public announcement about the Government Digital Archive was made by the Minister Responsible for Archives New Zealand, Hon Nathan Guy at the Government Recordkeeping Forum held in Wellington on Tuesday 1 June http://www.beehive.govt.nz/minister/nathan+guy.
It’s been about six months since Archives New Zealand opened its national office doors to Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) and the National Library/Alexander Turnbull Library, providing a safe haven for valuable heritage documents from these two organisations.
In November 2009 LINZ began transferring some of New Zealand’s oldest land records from its Wellington office to Archives New Zealand for future storage and preservation.
Along with the records came adviser Graeme Scott who has been on secondment this year, bringing 35 years experience working with LINZ records with him.
Graeme Scott explains, “I have primarily been working with Archives staff, training them in how to access LINZ records, particularly the LINZ Register Room and the Deeds records.
“The Deeds records document the transfer of land ownership in the Wellington region from 1840 to the 1900s,” he said.
What Graeme Scott finds most interesting about being at Archives New Zealand is learning more about the Wellington records.
He has also “stumbled across” the reason why two of the Deeds Index books were missing. He said, “I discovered notes in the back of one of the other Deeds record books while investigating the records for digitisation.
“From this I found that the two missing Index books had been transferred to Napier and were lost in the fires following the 1931 earthquake,” Graeme Scott said.
Graeme Scott in the LINZ Reading Room at Archives New Zealand's Wellington office.
Archives New Zealand is providing a safe home for some of the National Library and Alexander Turnbull Library's most high use and valuable materials for the next two years, while the Library’s own building in Molesworth Street, Wellington undergoes a major refurbishment.
On 25 February eight Alexander Turnbull Library staff members began working alongside Archives New Zealand’s Access Services archivists, sharing customer service facilities in the Wellington Gateway information space and Reading Room.
Pictured above: Alexander Turnbull Library Research Serivces, Merryn McAulay on duty at the Gateway help desk.
Turnbull Library team leader Joan McCracken said the move has been an enjoyable experience with positive feedback from staff and customers.
“We are working with Archives New Zealand’s Access Services staff and getting to know more about their finding aids and holdings,” she said.
Pictured above (left to right): Archives New Zealand Support Assistant Michelle Jackson, and Alexander Turnbull Library Research Services team leader Joan McCracken in the Wellington office Reading Room.
“The move to Archives New Zealand brings together Turnbull staff from different parts of the Library, and staff are now learning more about our collections as a result.”
Above: Gillian Headifen, Research Services working in the Alexander Turnbull Library office space at Archives' Wellington office.
Below: Rita Havell from Alexander Turnbull Library Research Services at the Wellington office Reading Room service desk.
Approximately 10 kilometres of purpose-built shelving was installed in Archives New Zealand’s repository to accommodate the collections.
The Turnbull collections held at Archives New Zealand include most of the Manuscripts Collection of personal papers, including letters, journals and diaries, the Special Printed Collections of rare and early books, prints from the Evening Post, Whites Aviation, War History and War Effort photographic collections, selected Oral History materials, the Lesbian and Gay manuscripts collection, and publications including the New Zealand Pamphlet collection, and books in Māori and some Pacific languages. The National Library’s Dorothy Neal White collection of pre-1940 children’s books is also available.
Joan McCracken says customers have access to the Turnbull databases and finding aids such as TAPUHI (the Library's catalogue for unpublished materials) and Timeframes (over 80,000 images online).
“We also provide access to the client held collection, which is a collection of Turnbull materials identified by our regular users as items they might be using over the next two years,” she said.
Pictured (back row, left to right): Archives Council members Barry Holdaway and Stuart Strachan, and Archives New Zealand's Government Recordkeeping Group Manager, Patrick Power. Front row (from left to right): Archives Council Chair Richard Nottage, and member Mel Smith, and Archives New Zealand's Acting Chief Archivist and Chief Executive Greg Goulding.
The number of government departments showing good recordkeeping and information management practices in line with the Public Records Act 2005 (Act), is on the increase, says acting Chief Archivist Greg Goulding in his report on the state of government recordkeeping.
The Chief Archivist’s Report on the State of Government Recordkeeping 2009 highlights a move to better recordkeeping practices. More agencies are saying they now have better recordkeeping practices to manage their records, including general disposal authorities to determine which records to dispose of and which to keep.
Since the Act was passed in 2005, Archives New Zealand has made significant progress to support the development of recordkeeping in government. A programme of work has been established including issuing standards, providing advice and delivering training modules.
The report identifies three key opportunities for developments in recordkeeping in public offices: effective management of records as a way to control paper and email bloat; the role of recordkeeping as a foundation for successful implementation of new technologies, and prudent recordkeeping as a basis for continuity of information in a time of rapid technological and social change.
Based on these opportunities the report makes five recommendations for improvements to how public offices preserve and maintain their records and information management systems.
Archives New Zealand has made some changes to its online search system Archway to improve the way readers can search for and request records they want to view in the department’s reading rooms.
The changes to Archway and the staff system, Archway Location Finder (ALF), went live in the Christchurch Regional office on Tuesday 13 July. The pilot is expected to take four weeks.
Project manager Mike Heron says, “ALF is a modern, robust system that replaces the department’s older systems, Repoman and Q&A.
“Our readers will notice several immediate improvements," he says. “Once the changes are rolled out to all offices, readers will only have to register once, no matter which office they are in.
"Readers will also be able to order items to view in the Reading Rooms directly from Archway, including from home. Once they are registered they will receive shiny new reader cards.
“ALF will also improve the way staff process the orders which will result in more efficient customer service,” Mike Heron says.
Christchurch is piloting the new system to ensure any issues are identified before implementation continues in the department’s three other offices.
Following a successful first day for the pilot, Christchurch’s acting Regional Archivist Rosie Ballantyne said readers had particularly good feedback about how easy it is to order items through Archway.
Above: Acting Christchurch Regional Archivist, Rosie Ballantyne introducing ALF to a reader on the first day of the pilot in Christchurch.
Mike Heron says the pilot has been a great team effort, with the project team providing staff and readers with onsite training and advice. This work was backed-up by systems developers in Wellington who resolved issues, calling upon the knowledge of the department’s Technology Services staff where required.
Above: Behind the scenes in Wellington, the Tech Services team poised for action as the ALF pilot goes live in Christchurch.
All going well, the changes will be implemented gradually to the other offices by the end of September 2010. Dunedin will be next, followed by Auckland and Wellington.
A background in teaching, social work and relationship management, together with a love of working with people and raising three children, has prepared Polly Martin for the challenges of her new role as Senior Adviser Community Archives at Archives New Zealand.
Based in National Office, Wellington, Polly Martin joined the Community Archives and Responsiveness to Māori Group in May.
She says the Community Archives Group forms the public face of Archives New Zealand.
“The focus of my role is on getting out into the community to find out what the different needs are and how we can help. I am also working closely with our Senior Adviser Iwi Development Julie Black where services to Māori are concerned.”
Since taking up the job Polly Martin has organised community training workshops in Whanganui and the Far North, produced two issues of the Community Archives newsletter (http://archives.govt.nz/about/publications-media?f=Newsletters) and met with the Sole Archivists’ Group in Wellington.
Pictured: Polly Martin with the Sole Archivists' Group in Wellington.
Polly Martin has also been getting up to speed with The Community Archive website (www.thecommunityarchive.org.nz) which she says is a virtual meeting place for isolated archivists throughout New Zealand.
She will also be joining forces with outreach workers from the National Library and Te Papa to ensure communities have access to the most comprehensive services they require.
For more information about the services provided by Archives New Zealand to community based archives, contact Polly Martin through her email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pictured: Te Reo o Taranaki Charitable Trust Chairperson, Hemi Sundgren and Archives New Zealand's Acting Chief Archivist and Chief Exectuive, Greg Goulding signing the letter of commitment.
A letter of commitment between Archives New Zealand and Te Reo o Taranaki Charitable Trust was signed by the department’s Acting Chief Archivist Greg Goulding and the Trust’s Chairperson Hemi Sundgren earlier this month.
Greg Goulding says the commitment reconfirms Archives New Zealand’s relationship with the Trust and the work which has contributed significantly to the Taranaki Reo Strategy project. This sees important records from the Wellington office, written in te reo Taranaki from 1860 to 1900, made available to the iwi.
“Stage one was completed in December last year and stage two is currently underway. The project’s success has been made possible by the expertise, goodwill and hard work of everyone involved,” he said.
Hemi Sundgren said, “the relationship with Archives New Zealand allows access to tāonga that builds an understanding of our connection to the past, at the same time building a foundation of material for the future.”
The focus of the project is to access and digitise material that supports the development of korero associated with Taranaki iwi and Taranaki reo.
This includes particular names, phrases, grammar and place names that have fallen out of use over time. It also builds a greater awareness and understanding of Taranaki's history and makes this accessible to future generations.
Archives New Zealand has a strong commitment to providing services to help Māori access valuable records relating to their history. The project is one of several collaborative work arrangements with iwi, including Ngai Tahu, Tainui and Tūhoe which have produced digital resources of significance to their past.
Archives New Zealand is pleased to announce it has issued a new recordkeeping standard on records disposal, under section 27 of the Public Records Act 2005, said Acting Chief Executive Greg Goulding.
“The Disposal Standard sets out minimum requirements on how public offices and local authorities dispose of records. It backs the requirements covering record disposal set out in the Public Records Act 2005, and applies to all records – whether paper or digital.
“Disposal is all about the proper destruction, transfer, discharge, sale, or alteration of records. Proper processes will let organisations reduce storage costs, and save unnecessary time and expense managing records that are no longer required,” he said.
Efficient disposals systems support accountability, efficiency, and good governance, while ensuring that records are controlled appropriately.
The Disposal Standard will be mandatory for public offices and local authorities, and discretionary for state and integrated schools. The date for mandatory compliance is 1 July 2012.
The final standard can be accessed on the Archives New Zealand website http://www.archives.govt.nz/advice/current-projects-and-news/disposal-st...
The publications will be officially launched later in 2010.
For further information about the standards please contact the Government Recordkeeping Programme at email@example.com.
In response to the increasing popularity of digitisation (scanning records), Archives New Zealand has developed a training course, Introduction to Digitisation – Plan before you scan, to help public offices and local authorities become wiser in the ways of this practice.
A practical introductory course to digitisation, Plan before you scan teaches the digitisation basics (key terms and concepts, different approaches to digitisation), a comprehensive outline of the current Digitisation Standard, and also the technical requirements of the practice.
The Digitisation Standard establishes a framework for maintaining public records and local government protected records in digital format where the original paper, or other non-digital source, record has been copied electronically (by digitising, or other means).
Registration for the first training session, to be held in Wellington on 19 August, filled up within three days. Regional courses in Auckland and Christchurch have also been scheduled for August.
Government Recordkeeping Senior Advisor, Lisa Judge says the focus of the course is summed up in the tagline: plan before you scan.
Lisa says, “you can’t just scan in an ad hoc manner, there’s a lot that needs to be thought through. For example, are you scanning for the right reasons? Are systems in place to manage what you’re scanning? Wt will you do with the paper records afterwards?
“These are the sorts of questions we will look at in the course,” she said.
Archives New Zealand’s Government Recordkeeping Programme offers other training courses. Including, Introduction to the Public Records Act 2005, and Recordkeeping Metadata. For more information and course dates, go to: http://www.archives.govt.nz/advice/training-and-events/government-record...
A collection of inward letters to the Office of the Colonial Secretary, Internal Affairs Series One (IA1) contains some of the most “precious records” held by Archives New Zealand, says Wendy Harnett, Senior Archivist, Arrangement and Description.
When New Zealand was first established as a colony, the Office of the Colonial Secretary was responsible for all government activities (specific departments were later formed, and the Secretary’s Office became the Department of Internal Affairs). The records contained in IA1 provide a comprehensive snapshot of New Zealand government during the formation of our nation.
Wendy says it is this feature that makes IA1 so precious. The series also documents many other significant events of our nation, for example, the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s.
“To date, these records have primarily been used by academics and the Waitangi Tribunal. However, we expect the improved search capabilities will lead to an increase in interest from family history researchers,” Wendy said
“We currently have the first year of IA1 (1840) available on our online search engine, Archway, including the first ever letter received by the Colonial Secretary.
“This letter, from Captain Jas Nias of the H.M.S Herald (the same ship that took the Treaty of Waitangi around New Zealand to be signed), details the passage of Captain William Hobson, New Zealand’s first Lieutenant Governor, to the country,” she said.
To make these records more accessible, a project to list each document to individual level has begun. This means the sender, date, and subject of every letter will become searchable on Archway.
Although highly valuable for future researchers, this process is also very labour-intensive, explains Wendy. “Spanning from 1840 to 1913, IA1 fills 1260 archives boxes.
Above: Arrangement and Description Data Entry Officers, Sarah Cho and Marion O'Brien with the Internal Affairs series one records. Sarah and Marion will be doing the vast majority of listing in this project.
“To list each piece of correspondence to item level, every letter in IA1 must be looked at, and often read. As these documents are primarily handwritten, the staff members listing them have to decipher 19th century script; a difficult and time consuming task.
“Despite the complexity, the benefits of having these records listed are immense,” says Wendy.
Letters from 1840 are now available on Archway (http://archway.archives.govt.nz/), and more will be added as they are completed.
Archives New Zealand is providing recordkeeping advice to the Auckland Transitional Agency (ATA) during the transitional stages of the new Auckland Super Council.
Established to administer the amalgamation of local authorities in the Auckland region into the new Council, the ATA has set-up a records management project to help manage this merger.
Archives New Zealand’s Acting Chief Executive Greg Goulding met with ATA’s Executive Chair Mark Ford and Manager of the Business and Systems component of the transition Mike Foley earlier this month.
“It was a successful meeting where we discussed the importance of ensuring the safekeeping of records from local authorities involved in the transition,” Greg Goulding said.
“I offered our assistance with ensuring the plan meets all the requirements. Mark Ford accepted this offer and we are peer reviewing the plan and providing ongoing advice.”
Protecting the nation’s rare and endangered heritage documents is the aim of a newly formed United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Memory of the World working group, of which Archives New Zealand is a member.
The working group was established during a meeting held at Archives New Zealand’s National Office in Wellington on 22 June.
Pictured: Evelyn Wareham (front, centre) with the working group established at the Memory of the World meeting.
The meeting, under the auspices of UNESCO’s New Zealand National Commission, aimed to raise awareness and understanding of the Memory of the World programme, and revitalise and enrich the programme in New Zealand by establishing a national register and committee.
Participants came from a wide range of sectors and institutions; including libraries, archives, museums and universities.
Memory of the World is an international initiative aimed at safeguarding, protecting and facilitating access to and the use of documentary heritage, especially heritage that is rare and endangered.
Evelyn Wareham, Archives New Zealand’s Digital Continuity Project leader is a member of UNESCO’s communications sub commission. Evelyn was involved with Memory of the World in 2002-2004 when she worked for the International Council on Archives in Paris, and more recently through the Pacific Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (PARBICA).
“Archives New Zealand holds the two New Zealand documents inscribed on UNESCO’s International Memory of the World Register – the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi and 1893 Women’s Suffrage Petition – in the Constitution Room in our National Office in Wellington,” Evelyn said.
“It’s Archives New Zealand’s role to provide leadership for archival activities across New Zealand. UNESCO Memory of the World is one means for us to do this, by working with a range of institutions to promote recognition of the country’s most valuable documentary heritage.
“Several Archives New Zealand staff participated at the international Memory of the World conference in Canberra in 2008. The meeting was an incentive to get the programme moving in New Zealand."
During the meeting Memory of the World Asia Pacific regional chair Ray Edmondson formally presented a certificate of inscription to the University of Canterbury, the custodian of the papers of the Tokyo War Crimes Trials 1946-1948. This is the first documentary heritage from New Zealand to be inscribed on the Asia Pacific Memory of the World register.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, most commonly known as the Tokyo War Crimes Trial, was one of the most important trials of the twentieth century. Justice Erima Harvey Northcroft was chosen to represent New Zealand. In January 1949, Northcroft donated his nearly complete set of trial documents to the university.
Since that time, as original copies of the material have dwindled, disintegrated, and been lost, the value of these records has risen exponentially. The collection is now one of the most complete sets in the world. It contains almost 380 volumes and nearly 110,000 pages, and provides evidence of virtually any topic regarding Asia in the first half of the twentieth century.
Pictured: Mary Griffin and Preservation Technician Shane Jackson at the Archives Wellington office.
Seeing an original painting in Archives New Zealand’s Wellington office was a moment to treasure for Mary Griffin, a former Karori resident now living in Taupo.
Mary Griffin was shown a painting from the National War Art Collection that features a New Zealand solider from the South African War (1899-1902), who she believes is her father.
Her father, Thomas Watson Brown was Bugler No.15 with the First Contingent New Zealand Mounted Rifles (NZMR). He left with the contingent from Wellington for South Africa on 21 October 1899 where he celebrated his 21st birthday on 25 December 1899.
He returned to New Zealand in January 1901 shortly before the painting of a solider in the South African War was completed by J McMaster (a poster painter of Wellington).
“I first saw the painting in April when reading my daily newspaper,” she said.
“There was a feature commemorating ANZAC Day and this included the painting of a New Zealand solider from the South African War,” she said. “I looked at the soldier’s face and thought ‘that’s my father’.”
Mary contacted the newspaper for more information and was referred to Archives New Zealand who had supplied the image.
The painting Soldier in a landscape, 1901 by J McMaster, Archives New Zealand Ref: AAAC 898 NCWA Q389 is one of 1500 artworks in the National Collection of War Art, housed at Archives New Zealand’s Wellington office. It is the only painting in the collection to depict the South African War.
Archives New Zealand invited Mary Griffin to view the painting when she visited Wellington for a family reunion recently.
“It was wonderful to see the painting and compare the facial features of the solider with photographs of my father – there was definitely a strong resemblance,” she said.
Thomas Brown was born in Masterton in 1878, and was generally known as “Wattie”. He served in both the South African War and World War One.
After World War One he married and settled in Karori, Wellington. He worked for the public service and died in 1947. Mary was his only child and lived in Karori for 68 years before moving to Taupo 16 years ago.
The National Collection of War Art can be viewed on Archives New Zealand’s website: www.archives.govt.nz.
The military personnel records of New Zealanders who served in the first and second contingents of the NZMR have been digitised and are available through Archway, Archives New Zealand’s online search engine: www.archway.archives.govt.nz
New Zealand archives found on the UNESCO International World Heritage site: The Treaty of Waitangi and the 1893 Women’s Suffrage Petition are the two New Zealand documents on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) website (http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26532&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_S...).
Both of these records are on display in the Constitution Room at Archives’ Wellington office, or can be seen online at http://www.archives.govt.nz/exhibitions/treaty (Treaty) and http://archives.govt.nz/womens-suffrage-petition (Petition).
Australian Society of Archivists (ASA) Conference – Future Proof: Resilient Archives 2020 and Beyond: ASA’s national conference will be held in Melbourne from 12-17 October 2010. For more information and registration details, go to: http://www.archivists.org.au/news/id/4
View exhibitions from Archives New Zealand’s regional offices online: these exhibitions include an exhibition on Chinese living in the Auckland region around 1890-1917, Farrago – a collection of some of the weird and wonderful records from the Christchurch office, and Dunedin Fire Brigade Photographs. For these exhibitions and more, go to: http://gallery.archives.govt.nz/main.php
Above, left to right: from the Auckland Chinese exhibition, Lau Fong ([Arch ref: BBAO 5544/121a 1910/801]); from Farrago, New Zealand Railway Christmas Card, 1951 (Archives Reference: CH142, box 20, 205, 1950-54 NZR Item 5 ); and the First motorised fire engine in Dunedin (Archives Reference: DABA/D48/116 [Part of]), from the Dunedin Fire Brigade Photographs exhibition.
New front entrance for national office: renovations have begun on the entranceway of the Archives New Zealand’s Wellington office. Expected to be completed in late August, staff and visitors are now using the alternative entrance five metres up the road.
It is business as usual for all ground floor services while the renovations are carried out, including the Gateway and Reading Room and Single File café.
National Digital Forum 2010 Conference – Linking data, linking people: the conference will be held at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, on 18-19 October 2010. For more information and registration details, go to: http://ndf.natlib.govt.nz/about/2010-conference.htm
New leaflet on the who, what, and where of Archives New Zealand now available: Archives have produced a stylish new leaflet that profiles our corporate identity and services to our customers. To find out more about us, pick one up from our offices in Wellington, Auckland, Christchurch, or Dunedin.
American Archivist available online: a semi-annual journal of the American Archivists Society, American Archivist provides a forum for discussion of trends and issues in archival theory and practise. To check it out, go to: http://archivists.metapress.com/home/main.mpx
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