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Glossary Definitions Full List

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Access

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Archives and Recordkeeping Context: The "right, opportunity, [or] means of finding, using, or retrieving information". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.1) OR The availability of records / archives for consultation as a result of both legal authorisation and the existence of finding aids. (International Council on Archives, Dictionary of Archival Terminology) Source: Continuum
  2. IT Context: The ability and means to communicate with or otherwise interact with a system in order to use system resources to either handle information or gain knowledge of the information the system contains. Source: itef rfc2828

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "right, opportunity, [or] means of finding, using, or retrieving information". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.1) OR The availability of records / archives for consultation as a result of both legal authorisation and the existence of finding aids. (International Council on Archives, Dictionary of Archival Terminology) Source: Continuum

Access Authority

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A legal instrument authorising an access classification made by the administrative head of a public office when records are transferred to the control of the Chief Archivist or are 25 years old. (Previously, under the Archives Act 1957, Archives New Zealand entered into access agreements for public archives with the creating or custodial organisation.) Source: Continuum

Access Copy

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Copy made from a collection item for you to use so that the original item can be preserved and protected from damage. Source: NDHA

Access Policy

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A set of rules and guidelines that determine how the institution's collections, services, products and databases are accessed. Source: amended from NDHA

Access Rights

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The access available to system users attached to specific roles in the system. Source: NDHA

See Permissions

Accession

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. "A group of records or archives from the same source taken into archival custody at the same time. (v.) The process of formally accepting and recording the receipt of records into archival custody. Accessioning provides basic physical and intellectual control over material coming into an archives." (KA, p.460) Source: Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "(n.) A group of records or archives from the same source taken into archival custody at the same time. (v.) The process of formally accepting and recording the receipt of records into archival custody. Accessioning provides basic physical and intellectual control over material coming into an archives." (KA, p.460) Source: Continuum

See Deaccession

Acquisition

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Items acquired for a library, or the department which acquires items for the library's collections. Source: NDHA

Active Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Those records required for the day-to-day functioning of an agency or person. Also referred to as current records. Source: S2 - Storage Standard

Activity

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Activities are the major tasks performed by an organisation to accomplish each of its functions. Several activities may be associated with each function. [...] ...an activity may be performed in relation to one function, or it may be performed in relation to many functions." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.3) Source: Continuum

 

Ad Hoc Disposal Authority

Continuum Definition(s)

See One-Off Disposal Authority

Administrative History

Continuum Definition(s)  

  1. "That part of a finding aid that describes: 1) the history of an agency or a group of related agencies, its organisational structure and functional responsibilities; or 2) the highlights of the life and career of a person or family. The administrative history of a person is also referred to as a biographical note." (KA, p.461) Source: Continuum

Agency

Continuum Definition(s) 

  1. In the GAIMS system of archival description, this refers to "a body, business, organisation or institution that creates or manages its own records in the course of its business or activities. In the case of large organisations or institutions, subordinate parts such as departments, sections, units, regional or branch offices may be regarded as separate agencies." (KA, p.461) Source: Continuum

Agency Code 

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. An alphabetical, numerical or alpha-numeric code, assigned by Archives New Zealand to each agency with which it has a relationship. This uniquely identifies a government agency for the purposes of linking that agency to transfers, disposal authorities, etc. Source: Continuum

AIP

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See Archival Information Package

Anonymous service

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A service that does not require the user to be identified or require protection of a user's identity. For example, access to publicly available online publications.

API

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See Application Programming Interface

Application Programming Interface

Digital Continuity Definition(s) 

  1. An application programming interface (API) is a set of definitions of the ways in which one piece of computer software communicates with another. Source: derived from NZFEAF-RM

 

Appraisal

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Appraisal is the process of evaluation to determine whether records are needed by a public office or local authority and how long they should be kept. Appraisal involves deciding which records of an organisation are retained permanently as public archives, and which records are destroyed once the organisation's business and accountability requirements have been met. This is based on analysing the organisation's business activities, while weighing up community expectations about permanent retention of those records. Source: Continuum

Approved Repository

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A body (such as a museum, a library, an archive, or an iwi-based or hapu-based repository) approved by the Minister responsible for Archives New Zealand as a repository for public archives under the PRA. Source: Continuum

Archival Information Package

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The contents derived from the Submission Information Package as represented in archival storage after additions, deletions and/or transformations are performed in the repository. Source: derived from OAIS

 

Archival Storage

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Digital Preservation Context: The capability that contains the services and functions used for the storage and retrieval of Archival Information Packages. Source: derived from OAIS
  2. Archival Context: See Continuum definition

Archival Value

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The values [...] that justify the continuing retention of records as archives.Evidential value. The value for providing evidence of the origins, structure, functions, policies and operations of the person or agency that created the records. [...] Informational value. The value for reference or research deriving from the information the records contain, as distinct from their evidential value. Records and archives often contain information that has reference or research uses not envisaged by its creators. Also referred to as secondary value. [...]" (KA, p.462) Source: Continuum

Archive

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. IT Context: (1) Noun: A collection of data that is stored for a relatively long period of time for historical and other purposes, such as to support audit service, availability service, or system integrity service.
  2. IT Context: (2) Verb: To store data in such a way. Source: itef rfc2828
  3. Archives and Recordkeeping Context: An organisation (or part of an organisation) responsible for appraising, acquiring, preserving and making material available. Source: derived from Continuum

Archives

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Those records that are appraised as having continuing value. Traditionally the term has been used to describe records no longer required for current use which have been selected for permanent preservation. Also referred to as permanent records. The place (building/room/storage area) where archival material is kept.
  2. An organisation (or part of an organisation) responsible for appraising, acquiring, preserving and making available archival material. [...] (KA, p.463) Source: Continuum

See Repository

Archiving

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The procedure for transferring non-current information or data from the active system. Source: derived from Continuum

See Archive (IT context)

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A computing term that has little to do with archival concepts and practices. It refers to the procedure for transferring unappraised non-current information or data from the active system [...]." (KA, p.464) Source: Continuum

Archway

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Archway, previously known as GLADIS [Government Locator, Archival Documentation and Information System], is an automated documentation system that manages: Information about government records; Information about the context in which they were created; and The core archival business processes (appraisal, transfer and description) that generate this information. Archway was developed in the first instance to provide access to information about Archives New Zealand's holdings through web-based finding aids. It also contains contextual data about the structure and functions of government and how they have interacted over time. It is designed to support other activities undertaken by Archives New Zealand, such as appraisal. Potentially, the system will support interdependencies between Archives New Zealand and agency systems in the creation and management of records. Source: Continuum

See http://www.archway.archives.govt.nz

Arrangement

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The intellectual and physical process of putting archives and records into order in accordance with accepted archival principles, particularly those of provenance and original order." (KA, p.464) Source: Continuum

See Description, Original Order

Arrangement and Description

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The intellectual process of describing and putting objects into order in accordance with accepted archival principles, particularly those of provenance and original order. Source: Continuum

See Description

Audit Trail

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of environments and activities surrounding or leading to an operation, procedure, or event in a security-relevant transaction from inception to final results. Source: itef rfc2828; "Glossary of Computer Security Terms", NCSC-TG-004, ver. 1, 21 Oct 1988. (Part of the Rainbow Series.)

Authentication

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. IT context: Process of establishing, to the required level of confidence, the identity of one or more parties to a transaction. Consists of identity management (establishing who you are) and logon management (confirming who you are).
  2. Of an Object: A mechanism that attempts to establish the authenticity of digital materials at a particular point in time. For example, digital signatures. Source: NDHA

Authentication key

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Method used by an individual to authenticate his or her identity over the Internet. Examples of authentication keys include passwords, one-time passwords, software tokens, hardware tokens and biometrics. Authentication keys are also referred to as keys.

Authenticity

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Digital Preservation Context: The extent to which one can be confident that digital material is what it purports to be. In the case of digital records, it refers to the trustworthiness of the digital record as a record. In the case of "born digital" and digitised materials, it refers to the fact that whatever is being cited is the same as it was when it was first created unless the accompanying metadata indicates any changes. Source: NDHA
  2. IT context: The property of being genuine and able to be verified and be trusted. Source: itef rfc2828
  3. Recordkeeping context: An authentic record is one that can be proven: To be what it purports to be, to have been created or sent by the person purported to have created or sent it, and to have been created or sent at the time purported. Source: ISO 15489

Authorisation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An "authorisation" is a right or a permission that is granted to a system entity to access a system resource.
  2. An "authorisation process" is a procedure for granting such rights.
  3. To "authorise" means to grant such a right or permission. Source: itef rfc2828

 

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Bitstream

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Contiguous or non-contiguous data within a file that has meaningful common properties for preservation purposes. Source: Amended from NDHA

Born Digital

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Relating to an object that is originally created in a digital format. Source: NDHA

Business Classification Scheme

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "An articulation of the functions and activities of the organisation derived from the analysis of the business activity. The business classification scheme contains terms and scope notes that represent and describe functions, activities, transactions, or other elements, and shows their relationships. The structure of the scheme is hierarchical, moving from the general to the specific. [...]" (DIRKS, Glossary, p.4) Source: Continuum

Business System

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A system designed to enable the realisation of desired business outcomes and outputs through the efficient management and facilitation of interrelated business processes." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.4) Source: Continuum

 

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Cataloguing

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The intellectual process of describing objects in accordance with accepted library principles, particularly those of subject and classification order. Source: Working Group

Checksum

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A computed value that is dependent upon the contents of a packet. Sent along with the packet when it is transmitted. The receiving system computes a new checksum based on data received, compares this value with the one sent with the packet. If the two values are the same, the receiver has a high degree of confidence that the data was received correctly. Source: NDHA

Class

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. "A description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships and semantics. (ISO 11179-3) Classes are the 'blueprints' for objects. A class wraps attributes (data) and behaviours (methods or functions) into a single distinct entity. Objects are instances of classes. (Practical UML: A Hands-On Introduction for Developers)" Source: NZFEAF-RM

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A group of documents or an identifiable sub-division of a series, record group or archive having common characteristics or the same archival value. Sometimes this term is used to mean series. Also referred to as disposal class." (KA, p.465) Source: Continuum

See Series

 

Classification

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "systematic identification and arrangement of business activities and/or records into categories according to logically structured conventions, methods, and procedural rules represented in a classification system". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.5) Source: Continuum

Client

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An application component which requests services from a server. Source: TOGAF

Communicate

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Communicate means to transmit or make available by means of a communication technology, including by means of a telecommunications system or electronic retrieval system, and communication has a corresponding meaning. Copyright Act 1994

Complex Digital Object

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A group of multiple digital entities that are managed and preserved as one or more groups. Source: NDHA

Computer-generated

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Computer-generated, in relation to a work, means that the work is generated by computer in circumstances such that there is no human author of the work. Copyright Act 1994

Conceptual Data Model

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. "A data model that represents an abstract view of the real world. (ISO 11179-3) A higher-level data artefact that is often used to explore domain concepts with project stakeholders. Logical data models are often derived from conceptual data models. At this level, the data modeller attempts to identify the highest-level relationships among the different entities. (More: Conceptual, Logical and Physical Data Models)." Source: NZFEAF-RM

Confidentiality

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorised to have access (ISO). This is one of the cornerstones of information security. Source: derived from NZFEAF-RM

Context

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The knowledge necessary to sustain a record's meaning or evidential value. Context describes the who, what, where and why of record creation and management." (SRNSW) Source: Continuum

Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[T]he whole extent of a record's existence. Refers to a consistent and coherent regime of management processes from the time of creation of records (and before creation, in the design of recordkeeping systems), through to the preservation and use of records as archives." (AS 4390:1996, Part 1, 4.22) Source: Continuum
  2. The name of Archives New Zealand's suite of recordkeeping standards and advice publications. Source: Continuum

Controlled Vocabulary

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "An alphabetical list containing terms and headings which are authorised or controlled so that only one heading or form of heading is allowed to represent a particular concept or name. It contrasts with natural language. A controlled vocabulary is also referred to as a thesaurus." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.6 taken from Kennedy & Schauder, p.291) Source: Continuum

Controlling Organisation

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The organisation that controls the record, including any successor to the organisation that created or maintained the record. Source: Disposal Standard

Conversion

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The process of changing records from one format to another. (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.7) Source: Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The process of changing records from one medium to another or from one format to another. (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.7) Conversion may also be used as part of a preservation strategy. Source: Continuum

Copy (noun)

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Copy, in relation to a document, includes a copy of a copy and a copy that is not an exact copy of the document but is identical to the document in all relevant respects. Evidence Act 2006

Copy (verb)

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Copy includes to copy by any electronic, optical, photographic, or other process. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act 1969

Copying

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Copying means, in relation to any description of work, reproducing, recording, or storing the work in any material form (including any digital format), in any medium and by any means. Copyright Act 1994

Creator

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The person or agency which creates, receives and accumulates or otherwise brings into existence documents and records. (KA, p.466) Source: Continuum

Current Records

See Active Records

Custody

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The physical management of records or archives. Custody refers to where and with whom records are stored. It does not necessarily include legal ownership." (AAHA, p.111) Source: Continuum

 

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Data

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Information in a specific physical representation, usually a sequence of symbols that have meaning; especially a representation of information that can be processed or produced by a computer. Source: itef rfc2828

Data Dictionary

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A formal repository of terms used to describe data. Source: OAIS

Data Logger

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A small computer which saves or ‘logs’ temperature and humidity readings over a designated period. A computer and commercially available software are required to download and analyse the data generated. Source: S2 - Storage Standard

Data Management

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Principles, processes and systems for the sharing and management of data. (CMMI V1.1) Source: NZFEAF-RM

Data storage device

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Data storage device means any article or device (for example, a disk) from which information is capable of being reproduced, with or without the aid of any other article or device. Electronic Transactions Act 2002

Dataset

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A collection of data, usually presented in tabular form.

Deaccession

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The process of removing material from the care and custody of an archives, either because the material has been reappraised and found to be unsuitable for the archives' holdings, or because the legal owner has requested its return, or because it has been agreed to transfer it to another archives. Deaccessioning is a serious matter which requires careful consideration and documentation." (KA, p.466) Source: Continuum

See Accession

Deferred Transfer

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The transfer to Archives New Zealand of a particular public archive of 25 years or over may be deferred for a period mutually agreed between the Chief Archivist and the administrative head of the public office. In the case of census records their transfer to Archives New Zealand is deferred for 100 years. The Chief Archivist may also require the deferred transfer of electronic records, and a Minister of the Crown may defer the transfer of records certified to contain information likely to prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand. (Based on the PRA s22) Source: Continuum

 

Deposit

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "An addition to the holdings or collection of an archives. A deposit is usually a transfer of material but may also be a donation or a loan for either a short-term or indefinite period." (KA, p.467) Source: Continuum

See Acquistion

Description

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The process of recording information about the nature and content of the records in archival custody. The description identifies such features as provenance, arrangement, format and contents, and presents them in a standardised form. (KA, p.467) Source: Continuum

See Arrangement, Finding Aids

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The process of recording information about the nature and content of the records in archival custody. The description identifies such features as provenance, arrangement, format and contents, and presents them in a standardised form." (KA, p.467) Source: Continuum

See Arrangement, Finding Aids

Designated Community

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An identified group of potential users who should be able to understand a particular set of information. The Designated Community may be composed of multiple user communities. Source: derived from OAIS

Destruction

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The physical disposal of records of no further value, for example by incineration, shredding or pulping [or deleting from an electronic system]." (KA, p.467) Source: Continuum

See Appraisal, Disposal

Digital Archive

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A repository for the long-term maintenance of digital resources and making them available. Source: Working Group

Digital cadastral survey dataset

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Digital cadastral survey dataset means cadastral survey dataset in digital form. Cadastral Survey Act 2002

Digital Continuity

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The ability to ensure digital information is accessible and usable by those that need it for as long as it is needed. Source: Digital Continuity Action Plan

Digital Object

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Digital objects are units of content managed by a digital archive. Digital objects have as one of their attributes an Identifier. They can be seen to be the atomic level of content. Smaller units can be contained within them, but the repository manages the digital object in a singular fashion.

See Identifier

 

Digital Preservation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Principles, practices, methods, strategies and managed activities that ensure long term preservation for continued access to digital materials for as long as necessary. Source: NDHA derived from Digital Preservation Coalition

Digital Record

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A record that been created in a digital form.

See Record

Digital Rights Management

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An umbrella term referring to any of several technical methods used to control or restrict the use of digital content. Source: NZFEAF-RM

Digital Signature

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A value computed with a cryptographic algorithm and appended to a data object in such a way that any recipient of the data can use the signature to verify the data's origin and integrity. Source: itef rfc2828

Digital Surrogate

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Objects that are created as the result of converting analogue material to digital form. Source: NDHA

Digitisation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The process of converting analogue/physical object into a digital format. Source: derived from NDHA

DIP

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See Dissemination Information Package

Disaster Plan

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A written procedure setting out the measures to be taken to minimise the risks and effects of disasters such as fire, flood or earthquake, etc, and to recover, save and secure the vital records should such a disaster occur. Part of preventive conservation." (KA, p.467) Source: Continuum

See Vital Records

Discharge Register

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The publicly available register of public records discharged under the PRA. Source: Continuum

Discharged Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A record that no longer has status as a public record and is no longer subject to the PRA. A record that is discharged becomes the property of the person to whom it is discharged. Source: Continuum

Discovery

Continuum Definition(s)

See Metadata

Disposal

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The range of processes associated with implementing records retention, destruction or transfer decisions which are documented in a disposal authority. Section 4 of the Public Records Act 2005 outlines the possible types of disposal as: the transfer of control of a record; or the sale, alteration, destruction, or discharge of a record. Source: Disposal Standard

Disposal Action

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The specification as to whether records are to be retained and if so for how long, or when they are to be destroyed." (KA, p.468)
  2. An example of a disposal sentence is: 'transfer as a public archive five years after last action'. Source: Continuum

See Disposal, Disposal Authority, Disposal Trigger, Sentencing

Disposal Authority

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A document that defines the retention periods and consequent disposal actions authorised for records described in it. For public offices, a disposal authority is a formal authorisation issued by the Chief Archivist under s20 of the Public Records Act 2005. Source: Disposal Standard

Disposal Schedule

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A systematic listing of records created by an organisation or agency which plans the life of these records from the time of their creation to their disposal. A disposal schedule is a continuing authority for implementing decisions on the value of records specified in the schedule. A disposal schedule lists: the records created by the agency; the retention period for each series or class of records. the disposal sentence for each series or class of records, specifying whether the records are to be retained as archives or destroyed; the custody arrangements for each series or class of records, specifying when the records are to be transferred to intermediate storage and/or to archives; General disposal schedules cover functions common to a number of agencies, typically used by government archival authorities to cover functional areas such as Personnel, Finance and Stores. A recent development in appraisal methodology is the view that functional analysis is more efficient than records analysis in producing records schedules. The resultant disposal schedules are based on function or activity within function, either across a range of related organisations or to provide a specific disposal schedule for a particular agency." (KA, p.468) Source: Continuum

See Disposal, Disposal Authority, Disposal Trigger, Sentencing

Disposal Trigger

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "In disposal schedules the event or activity which indicates that the active life of the record is over and the disposal sentence can be applied." (KA, p.468)
  2. Examples of disposal triggers are: last action on file; whether superseded; etc. Source: Continuum

See Disposal Schedule

Dissemination Information Package

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A set of content disseminated from the repository. It may contain one or more AIPs. A DIP disseminates all or part of a single AIP. Source: NDHA derived from OAIS

Document

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Recorded information regardless of medium or form. The smallest complete unit of record material, e.g. a letter, photograph, report." (KA, p.468) Source: Continuum

See Item

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Document means a document in any form; and includes (a) any writing on any material; and (b) information recorded or stored by means of a tape-recorder, computer, or other device; and material subsequently derived from information so recorded or stored; and (c) a book, graph, or drawing; and (d) a photograph, film, negative, tape, or other device in which one or more visual images are embodied so as to be capable (with or without the aid of equipment) of being reproduced. Companies Act 1993
  2. Document means a) any material, whether or not it is signed or otherwise authenticated, that bears symbols (including words and figures), images, or sounds or from which symbols, images, or sounds can be derived, and includes (i) a label, marking, or other writing which identifies or describes a thing of which it forms part, or to which it is attached: (ii) a book, map, plan, graph, or drawing (iii) a photograph, film, or negative; and (b) information electronically recorded or stored, and information derived from that information. Evidence Act 2006
  3. Document means a document in any form whether signed or initialled or otherwise authenticated by its maker or not; and includes (a) Any writing on any material (b) Any information recorded or stored by means of any tape-recorder, computer, or other device; and any material subsequently derived from information so recorded or stored (c) Any label, marking, or other writing that identifies or describes any thing of which it forms part, or to which it is attached by any means (d) Any book, map, plan, graph, or drawing (e) Any photograph, film, negative, tape, or other device in which one or more visual images are embodied so as to be capable (with or without the aid of some other equipment) of being reproduced. Fair Trading Act 1986; Official Information Act 1982; Privacy Act 1993; Local Government Official Information and Meetings Act 1987; New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act 1969
  4. Document means a document in any form; and includes (b) information recorded or stored by means of any recording device, computer, or other electronic device, or any other device, and material subsequently derived from information so recorded or stored. National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003

Dublin Core

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Dublin Core is a 15-element metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. Dublin Core can also refer to the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative as an organization, or the wider set of properties and vocabularies maintained by DCMI. Source: NDHA

See http://www.dublincore.org

 

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e-Legal Deposit

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The extension of legal deposit to include electronic documents. This occurred in the National Library Act 2003. Source: NDHA

Electronic

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Electronic means actuated by electric, magnetic, electro-magnetic, electro-chemical, or electro-mechanical energy; and in electronic form means in a form usable only by electronic means. Copyright Act 1994
  2. Electronic includes electrical, digital, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, biometric, and photonic. Credit Contracts and Consumer Finance Act 2003; Public Records Act 2005; Electronic Transactions Act 2002
  3. Electronic includes electrical, digital, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, biometric, and phototonic. National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003

Electronic communication

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Electronic communication means a communication by electronic means. Credit Contracts and Consumer Finance Act 2003 Electronic Transactions Act 2002

Electronic message

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. For the purposes of this Act, an electronic message is a message sent (a) using a telecommunications service; and (b) to an electronic address. Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act 2007

Electronic Records

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See Digital Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Records capable of being processed in a computer system and/or stored at any instant in a medium which requires electronic or computer equipment to retrieve them." (KA, p.469) Includes the digitised form of paper records. Source: Continuum

 

Emulation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Emulation occurs when a system or a program performs in the same way as another system or program. This makes one system functionally indistinguishable from another, e.g. entering, viewing and retrieving data has the same result in both systems. Often the subject for emulation is a popular but superceded computer. Source: Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Emulation occurs when a system or a program performs in the same way as another system or program. This makes one system functionally indistinguishable from another, e.g. entering, viewing and retrieving data has the same result in both systems. Often the subject for emulation is a popular but superceded computer. Source: Continuum

Ephemeral Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Records that are characterised by their trivial nature or very short term value, and so do not need to be captured into a recordkeeping system or retained for any period of time. For example, low level meeting notices, minor catering arrangements, duplicate copies of records already captured in a recordkeeping system. Source: Disposal Standard

Estray/s; Estray Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A record that has been removed without proper authority from the possession of a public office, Archives New Zealand, or another legitimate custodian, e.g. an attractive map or photograph 'souvenired' by a retiring government official, or a document stolen from Archives New Zealand. A protected record removed from the possession of a local authority is also an estray. The PRA gives the Chief Archivist powers to inspect and recover estrays. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Event Metadata

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Metadata which provides an audit trail of actions by an agent on an object. Also known as Process Metadata. Source: derived from NDHA

Evidence

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[I]nformation that tends to prove a fact. Not limited to the legal sense of the term." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.14) Source: Continuum

eXtensible Markup Language

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See XML

 

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Facilitative records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Records that are created for the purpose of creating other records and are therefore not required to be maintained for any period of time because they do not provide evidence of business activity. For example, reference material, notes of meetings where a formal record is made. Source: Disposal Standard

File

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Recordkeeping Context: (n) An organised unit of documents, accumulated during current use and kept together because they deal with the same subject, activity or transaction and which may or may not be fastened together with or without a cover. The unit may be paper or electronic. (v) The action of placing documents in a predetermined location according to an overall scheme of control. (KA, p.470) Source: Continuum
  2. IT Context: A file is a named and ordered sequence of bytes that is known by an operating system. One or more files compose any given Representation.[52] Source: NDHA

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. (n) An organised unit of documents, accumulated during current use and kept together because they deal with the same subject, activity or transaction and which may or may not be fastened together with or without a cover. The unit may be paper or electronic.
  2. (v) The action of placing documents in a predetermined location according to an overall scheme of control. (KA, p.470) Source: Continuum

File (verb)

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. To file, in relation to any document, means to lodge the document in the form required by these rules in, or to send it by post or electronically in accordance with these rules to, the proper registry of the court, together with the fee (if any) payable for filing it. High Court Rules: Schedule 2 to the Judicature Act 1908

 

Finding Aids

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The descriptive media, published and unpublished, manual or electronic, created by an archives or an archival programme, to establish physical or administrative and intellectual control over records and other holdings. Finding aids lead both archives staff and users to the information they are seeking from or about archives. Basic finding aids include guides (general or repository, subject or topical), descriptive inventories, series registers, accession registers, card catalogues, special lists, shelf and box lists, indexes, and, for machine-readable records, software documentation.
  2. The registers, indexes and filing system guides produced by the agency or person who created the records, also referred to as control records or contemporaneous finding aids. (KA, p.471) Source: Continuum

See Description, Shelf List

Fixity

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The condition of not being liable to displacement or change; stability or permanence in situation, condition, or form. Source: OED

Fixity Check

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Process of verifying that a file or bitstream has not been changed during a given period. Source: NDHA

 

Fixity Information

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A stored value, derived from the file properties, that is used as a basis for assuring physical file integrity. Source: derived from NDHA

See Checksum

Format

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Specific, pre-established structure for the organisation of a file or bitstream. Source: NDHA

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The physical medium in which information is recorded or carried, e.g. paper files, computer printout, photographs, microfilm, [electronic] records, plans, cards, volumes, etc. A selection of descriptive elements set out in a prescribed manner and sequence so that the resulting description will be standardised for all types of records." (KA, p.471) Source: Continuum

Format Registry

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An accessible compilation of information on file formats. It can provide identifiers for formats, definitive names, methods of identification, descriptions and other information. Source: Working Group

Format Verification

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Process of checking that a file in a given format is complete and conforms with the format's technical specification. Source: NDHA

Function

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[T]he largest unit of business activity in an organisation or jurisdiction." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.15) Source: Continuum

 

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General Disposal Authority (GDA)

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A disposal authority issued by the Chief Archivist that covers records common to multiple public offices e.g. financial records. A GDA does not authorise disposal of records specific to the functions of a public office. Source: Continuum

See Disposal Authority, Disposal Schedule

General Housekeeping Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Records usually disposed of on a daily basis by most staff members. These are not records that relate to an organisation's primary duties and responsibilities. For guidance on general housekeeping records, see Archives New Zealand General Disposal Authority GDA3: General Housekeeping Records. Source: Continuum

 

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Identifier

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An identifier is a language-independent label, sign or token that identifies an object from another object.

See Unique Identifier, Persistent Identifier

Identity

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A set of attributes and/or data linked to an individual person.

IE

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

See Intellectual Entity

Inactive Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Those records no longer required for the conduct of business and which may therefore be transferred to intermediate storage, archival custody or destroyed. Source: S2 - Storage Standard

Indexing

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "process of establishing access points to facilitate retrieval of records and/or information". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.11) Source: Continuum

Information

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Information includes information (whether in its original form or otherwise) that is in the form of a document, a signature, a seal, data, text, images, sound, or speech. Electronic Transactions Act 2002
  2. Information includes information in the form of a document, data, text, images, sound, or speech. National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003

Information Management

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A professional field concerned with optimising the uses of information, using both social and technical approaches." (Kennedy & Schauder, p.296) Source: Continuum

Information system

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Information system means a system for producing, sending, receiving, storing, displaying, or otherwise processing electronic communications. Credit Contracts and Consumer Finance Act 2003 Electronic Transactions Act 2002

Information Systems

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[O]rganised collections of hardware, software, supplies, policies, procedures and people, that store, process and provide access to information." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.17) Source: Continuum

Ingest

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The process by which a digital file is accepted and loaded into a digital store, together with its descriptive information for subsequent retrieval. Source: derived from OAIS

Intellectual Control

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The control established over the informational content of records and archives resulting from ascertaining and documenting their provenance, and from the processes of arrangement and description." (KA, p.472) Source: Continuum

Intellectual Entity (IE)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A coherent set of digital objects or a singular digital object that is described as a unit, for example, a book, a map, a photograph, or a serial. Source: NDHA

Internet documents

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Internet document means a public document that is published on the Internet, whether or not there is any restriction on access to the document; and includes the whole or part of a website. National Library of New Zealand Act 2003

Item

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The smallest discrete unit of record material which accumulates to form a series (i.e. a file or part file in a series of files; a volume in a series of volumes, etc.). Sometimes the term is also used as equivalent to Document (2). Also referred to as record item." (KA, p.473) Source: Continuum

See Document.

 

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Keyword

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Keywords are used to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine.

Knowledge Base

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A set of information, incorporated by a person or system, that allows that person or system to understand received information. Source: OAIS

Knowledge Management

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The creation of value from an organisation's intellectual and knowledge based assets. Source: Continuum

 

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LDAP

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. In computer networking, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is a standardised networking protocol designed for querying and modifying directory services. LDAP defines a relatively simple protocol for updating and searching directories running over TCP/IP. No specific type of directory is an ‘LDAP directory’. LDAP directory entries feature a hierarchical structure that reflects political, geographic and/or organisational boundaries, usually with DNS names at the top level. Source: NZFEAF-RM

Legacy System

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Previous generation/version information technology architectures and their contents, this can include paper-based systems. Source: Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Previous generation/version information technology architectures and their contents whose dysfunctionalities need to be overcome in deploying new generation/version information technology." (Kennedy & Schauder, p.296) Source: Continuum

Legal Deposit

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Legal deposit within the National Library Act 2003 is the provision requiring publishers to provide copies of New Zealand publications to the National Library of New Zealand for addition to its collections. Legal Deposit applies to any person, group or organisation that publishes material in New Zealand, for sale or free of charge, to any section of the public. Legal Deposit provisions apply to printed and offline electronic materials (for example, CDs, DVDs, videos) Legal Deposit provisions also apply to internet documents. Source: NDHA

Lifecycle

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "An approach to viewing records management through a lifecycle model. It divides the records into five major phases of existence: creation, distribution, use, maintenance and disposal. As part of the disposal it may enter into the archives or be destroyed." (JISC:PRO, Appendix 3: Glossary, p.16)
  2. Current records management theory and methodology in Australasia favours the concept of the records continuum over that of the lifecycle model. Source: Continuum

Local authority

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. A regional council or territorial authority. This includes: a council-controlled organisation; a council-controlled trading organisation; and a local government organisation. Public Records Act 2005

Local authority archive

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. A local authority record that: is no longer in current use by the controlling local authority; or has been in existence for 25 years or more (whether or not in current use); and includes a protected record; and a local authority record that the controlling local authority resolves is worth permanent preservation. Public Records Act 2005

Local authority record

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Means a record or class of records in any form, in whole or in part, created or received (whether before or after the commencement of this Act) by a local authority in the conduct of its affairs. Public Records Act 2005

 

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Maintain

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[To retain] records in identifiable recordkeeping systems over time in accordance with appraisal decisions. Records that are required to be maintained should be accessible, their integrity should be protected and, where necessary, they should meet the conditions or requirements identified in order to meet business needs, organisational accountability and community expectations. This may include migrating records across successive systems and other preservation strategies." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.9) Source: Continuum

Malicious code attacks

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Attacks that are generally aimed at the customer's computing environment. They vary in their sophistication from simple keystroke loggers to advanced Trojan programs that can gain control of the customer's computer. Malicious code attacks may also be aimed at verifier systems.

Man-in-the-middle attacks

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Where an attacker inserts him/herself between the customer and the verifier in an authentication exchange. The attacker attempts to authenticate to both parties by posing as the customer to the verifier and the verifier to the customer.

Message

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Message means information, whether in a) the form of text or writing; or (b) the form of data; or (c) the form of speech, music, or other sounds; or (d) the form of visual images (animated or otherwise); or (e) any other form; or (f) any combination of forms. Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act 2007

Metadata

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Structured information that describes and/or allows users to find, manage, control, understand or preserve information over time. Source: ICA req

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Data describing context, content and structure of records and their management through time." (ISO 15489-2001) Source: Continuum

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. METS is a standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata about objects within a digital library, expressed using XML. Source: NDHA

See http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/

Migration

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "act of moving records from one system to another, while maintaining the records' authenticity, integrity, reliability, and usability". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.13) Source: Continuum

Migration (digital preservation)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Set of organised tasks designed to achieve the periodic transfer of digital materials from one hardware or software configuration to another, or from one generation of computer technology to a subsequent generation.

Migration (recordkeeping)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The "act of moving records from one system to another, while maintaining the records' authenticity, integrity, reliability, and usability". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.13) Source: Continuum

 

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Normalise

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Convert data objects from a wide range of formats to a selected range of formats better suited to long term preservation. Source: NAA

NZGLS (New Zealand Government Locator Service)

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Defines the structure of the descriptions government agencies will apply to their information and services (NZGLS Metadata Standard); Defines the terms used to describe information and services. (NZGLS Thesauri); Ensures that government agencies have appropriate tools to capture, manage, and apply the descriptions to the information and services. (NZGLS Metadata management) Source: Continuum

 

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OAI-PMH

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a lightweight harvesting protocol for sharing metadata between services. In the OAI context, harvesting refers specifically to the gathering together of metadata from a number of distributed repositories into a combined data store. Source: OAI

See http://www.openarchives.org/

Official information

Legislative Definition(s)

Official information

(a) means any information held by

(i) a department; or

(ii) a Minister of the Crown in his official capacity; or

(iii) an organisation; and

(b) includes any information held outside New Zealand by any branch or post of

(i) a department; or

(ii) an organisation; and

(c) in relation to information held by the Ministry of Justice, includes information held by the Rules Committee appointed under section 51B of the Judicature Act 1908; and

(d) in relation to information held by a university (including Lincoln University), includes only information held by

(i) the Council of the university; or

(ii) the Senate, Academic Board, or Professorial Board of the university; or

(iii) any member of the academic staff of the university; or

(iv) any other officer or employee of the university; or

(v) any examiner, assessor, or moderator in any subject or examination taught or conducted by the university; but

(e) does not include information contained in

(i) library or museum material made or acquired and preserved solely for reference or exhibition purposes; or

(ii) material placed in the National Library of New Zealand by or on behalf of persons other than Ministers of the Crown in their official capacity or departments; or

(iii) any oral history provided to the National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa in accordance with section 10 of the National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003; and

(f) does not include any information which is held by a department, Minister of the Crown, or organisation solely as an agent or for the sole purpose of safe custody and which is so held on behalf of a person other than a department or a Minister of the Crown in his official capacity or an organisation; and

(g) does not include any information held by Public Trust or the Maori Trustee

(i) in their capacity as trustee within the meaning of the Trustee Act 1956; or

(ii) in any other fiduciary capacity; and

(h) does not include evidence given or submissions made to

(i) a Royal Commission; or

(ii) a commission of inquiry appointed by an Order in Council made under the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908; or

(iii) a commission of inquiry or board of inquiry or court of inquiry or committee of inquiry appointed, pursuant to, and not by, any provision of an Act, to inquire into a specified matter; and

(i) does not include information contained in any correspondence or communication which has taken place between the office of the Ombudsmen and any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation and which relates to an investigation conducted by an Ombudsman under this Act or under the Ombudsmen Act 1975, other than information that came into existence before the commencement of that investigation; and

(j) does not include information contained in any correspondence or communication that has taken place between the office of the Privacy Commissioner and any department or Minister of the Crown or organisation and that relates to any investigation conducted by the Privacy Commissioner under the Privacy Act 1993, other than information that came into existence before the commencement of that investigation

(k) does not include information contained in a victim impact statement (as defined in section 22 of the Victims' Rights Act 2002)

(l) does not include any evidence, submissions, or other information given or made to

(i) the Judicial Conduct Commissioner, the Deputy Judicial Conduct Commissioner, or a Judicial Conduct Panel, in relation to any matter under the Judicial Conduct Commissioner and Judicial Conduct Panel Act 2004; or

(ii) the Judicial Complaints Lay Observer

Official information

(a) Means any information held by a local authority; but

(b) Does not include

(i) Information contained in library or museum material made or acquired and preserved solely for reference or exhibition purposes; or

(ii) Information which is held by a local authority solely as an agent or for the sole purpose of safe custody and which is so held on behalf of a person other than a local authority; or

(iii) Information contained in any correspondence or communication that has taken place between the office of the Ombudsmen and any local authority and that relates to an investigation conducted by an Ombudsman under this Act or under the Ombudsmen Act 1975, other than information that came into existence before the commencement of that investigation; and

(c) Does not include information contained in any correspondence or communication that has taken place between the office of the Privacy Commissioner and any local authority and that relates to any investigation conducted by the Privacy Commissioner under the Privacy Act 1993, other than information that came into existence before the commencement of that investigation:

Official information: this definition was amended, as from 1 July 1993, by section 2(1) and (2) Local Government Official Information and Meetings Amendment Act 1993 (1993 No 37) by inserting the expression '; and' to paragraph (b) and inserting paragraph (c). Local Government Official Information and Meetings Act 1987

Official statistics

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Official statistics means statistics derived by Government Departments from (a) Statistical surveys as defined in this section; and (b) Administrative and registration records and other forms and papers the statistical analyses of which are published regularly, or are planned to be published regularly, or could reasonably be published regularly. Statistics Act 1975

One-Off Disposal Authority

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[A] non-continuing approval, not intended to set a precedent, which provides a particular disposal action for a specific set of circumstances." (KA, p.468) Source: Continuum

OPAC

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Online Public Access Catalogue. Online access to the bibliographic records and holdings details of a library or group of libraries. Source: NDHA

Open Access Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A public record or a local authority archive that has been classified as open access and to which public access has not been prohibited. For public records to be open access records they must also have been in existence for at least 25 years or have been transferred to the control of the Chief Archivist. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Open Archival Information System (OAIS)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An archive, consisting of an organization of people and systems, that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a Designated Community. It meets a set of responsibilities, as defined in 3.1, that allows an OAIS archive to be distinguished from other uses of the term 'archive'. The term 'Open' in OAIS is used to imply that this Recommendation and future related Recommendations and standards are developed in open forums, and it does not imply that access to the archive is unrestricted. Source: OAIS

Open Systems

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. "Systems (usually operating systems) that are not tied to a particular computer system or hardware manufacturer. An example is the UNIX operating system, with versions available for a wide variety of hardware platforms." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.10) Source: Continuum

OpenURL

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. OpenURL is an "actionable" URL that transports resource metadata. Source: derived from NDHA

Optical Disk

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A specially coated disk onto which information is recorded in analogue or digital form by a laser. The information can be retrieved by having a laser read the disk and the result decoded. Source: derived from Continuum

Original Order

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The order in which records and archives were kept when in active use, i.e. the order of accumulation as they were created, maintained and used. The principle of original order requires that the original order be preserved or reconstructed [where possible]." (KA, p.475) Source: Continuum

See Arrangement

 

 

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Permissions

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

Library context: Access conditions specified by the creator or donor of the object.

Recordkeeping context: The security clearance or other accreditation of an agent or business function or activity that determines its access and use rights to records.

IT context: Permissions are a mechanism for administering access to a specific object and is specified for the specific object. Depending on the system or application, permissions can be defined for a specific user, specific groups of users, or all users; or for a role, or groups of roles; or based on one or more user attributes. In this context, access refers to a type of access e.g. read. Originally, permissions were a mechanism for controlling access to files, but has broadened include other digital objects. Permissions is sometimes used interchangeably with the term Access Rights, and can lead to confusion. OASIS uses the term rule in place of: permission, privilege, authorisation, entitlement and right.

See http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=xacml

Persistent Identifier

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A persistent identifier is a language-independent label, sign or token that identifies an object from another object that cannot be changed over time.

See Identifier, Unique Identifier

Physical Control

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The control established over the physical aspects (such as format, quantity and location) of the archives and records in custody." (KA, p.476) Source: Continuum

Physical Object

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An object (such as a moon rock, bio-specimen, microscope slide) with physically observable properties that represent information that is considered suitable for being adequately documented for preservation, distribution, and independent usage. Source: OAIS

PREMIS: Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The PREMIS working group has established a data model and data dictionary for preservation metadata. Source: NDHA

See http://www.oclc.org/default.htm

Prescribed Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A record declared to be a prescribed record by the Chief Archivist by means of a notice in the Gazette. The Chief Archivist may use this power in relation to a record not held by the relevant public office, a local authority record not held by the local authority, or a private record. A person may not transfer a prescribed record without giving the Chief Archivist the first option to purchase the record. Details of records which are prescribed records are entered in a public register with Archives New Zealand. (PRA s4 and s38) Source: Continuum

Preservation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The processes and operations in ensuring the technical and intellectual survival of objects through time. Source: derived from Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "processes and operations in ensuring the technical and intellectual survival of authentic records through time". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.14) Source: Continuum

Preservation Repository

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A repository that intends to preserve and manage content to enable access in perpetuity. Source: Working Group

Privileges

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A set of authorizations to perform security-relevant functions, especially in the context of a computer operating system. Modified source: itef rfc2828

Producer

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The role played by those persons, organisations or client systems, who provide the information to be preserved. Source: derived from OAIS

Protected Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A local authority record declared by the Chief Archivist to be a protected record by notice in the Gazette. A local authority must provide for the adequate protection and preservation of its protected records. Protected records must not be disposed of without the authorisation of the Chief Archivist. The list of local authority protected records is known as the "Local Government Schedule." (PRA, s40) Source: Continuum

Provenance

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Provenance means the origin, or the source of something, or the history of the ownership or location of an object. The term is used in a wide range of professional fields including, art collection, archival management, librarianship, computing and law. In most fields, the primary purpose of provenance is to confirm or gather evidence as to the time, place, and - when appropriate - the person responsible for the creation, production, or discovery of the object.

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The agency, office, or person of origin of records, i.e. the entity which created, received, or accumulated, and used the records in the conduct of business or personal life. Also referred to as records creator. The chain of custody which reflects the office(s) or person(s) that created, received or accumulated and used the records in the conduct of business or in the course of personal life. Identifying and documenting the provenance of records is an essential part of establishing their authenticity and integrity as evidence. In archival theory, the principle of provenance requires that the archives of an agency or person not be mixed or combined with the archives of another, i.e. the archives are retained and documented in their functional and/or organisational context." (KA, p.476) Source: Continuum

Public Archive

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A public record that is under the control of the Chief Archivist. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Public Office

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The legislative, executive and judicial branches of the Government of New Zealand and their agencies or instruments, including departments, offices of Parliament, state enterprises, Crown entities, the Police, the Defence Force, and the Security Intelligence Service. Crown entities include district health boards, school boards of trustees and tertiary education institutions. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Public Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A record created or received by a public office in the conduct of its affairs. This includes records declared to be public records by the Governor:General and estray records. This does not include special collections (records collected for purposes such as research) or records created by the academic staff or students of a tertiary education institution, unless the records have become part of the records of that institution. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Public record

Legislative Definition(s)

(a) means a record or a class of records, in any form, in whole or in part, created or received (whether before or after the commencement of this Act) by a public office in the conduct of its affairs; and

(b) includes

(i) a record or a class of records declared under section 5(1)(a)(ii) to be a public record for the purposes of this Act; and

(ii) estray records; but

(c) does not include

(i) a special collection; or

(ii) records created by the academic staff or students of a tertiary education institution, unless the records have become part of the records of that institution. Public Records Act 2005

Public Records Act

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The legislation governing records, recordkeeping and archives in the New Zealand public sector, including local government. Replaced the Archives Act 1957 and Part XVII of the Local Government Act 1974. Source: Continuum

Publication

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The issue of copies of a work to the public; including making it available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system. (Copyright Act 1994, s10) Source: Continuum

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Publication means - (d) a thing (including, but not limited to, a disc, or an electronic or computer file) on which is recorded or stored information that, by the use of a computer or other electronic device, is capable of being reproduced or shown as 1 or more (or a combination of 1 or more) images, representations, signs, statements, or words. Films, Videos and Classifications Act 1993

 

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RDF (Resource Description Framework)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A family of specifications for a metadata model. The RDF family of specifications is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The RDF metadata model is based upon the idea of making statements about resources in the form of a subject-predicate-object expression and is a major component in what is proposed by the W3C's Semantic Web activity: an evolutionary stage of the World Wide Web in which automated software can store, exchange and utilise metadata about the vast resources of the Web, in turn enabling users to deal with those resources with greater efficiency and certainty. RDF's simple data model and ability to model disparate, abstract concepts has also led to its increasing use in knowledge management applications unrelated to Semantic Web activity. Source: NZFEAF-RM

See Semantic Web

Record (noun)

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. Record means information, whether in its original form or otherwise, including (without limitation) a document, a signature, a seal, text, images, sound, speech, or data compiled, recorded, or stored, as the case may be, - (c) by means of any recording device or process, computer, or other electronic device or process. Public Records Act 2005

Record (verb)

Legislative Definition(s)

  1. record includes to cause to be recorded

Record/s

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The International Standard on Records Management defines a record as: information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organisation or person in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business. (ISO 15489) The Public Records Act defines a record as: "information, whether in its original form or otherwise, including (without limitation) a document, a signature, a seal, text, images, sound, speech, or data compiled, recorded, or stored, as the case may be:" in written form on any material; or on film, negative, tape, or other medium so as to be capable of being reproduced; or by means of any recording device or process, computer, or other electronic device or process." (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Recordkeeping

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The creation and maintenance of complete accurate and reliable evidence of business transactions in the form of recorded information." (AS 4390:1996, Part 1, 4.19) Recordkeeping includes the following: the creation of records in the course of business activity and the means to ensure the creation of adequate records; the design, establishment and operation of recordkeeping systems, including the definition of metadata; and the management of records used in business (traditionally regarded as the domain of records management) and as archives (traditionally regarded as the domain of archives administration). Source: Continuum

Records Management

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Activities within the management of the continuum (1) of records of an organisation which facilitate the systematic capture, control, maintenance, dissemination and disposition of the records of that organisation. Records management is primarily concerned with capturing complete, accurate, and reliable documentation of organisational activity for current purposes." (KA, p.477) Source: Continuum

Records System

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[I]nformation system which captures, manages and provides access to records through time". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.17) Source: Continuum

Reformatting

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Copying information content from one storage medium to a different storage medium (media reformatting) or converting from one file format to a different file format (file re-formatting). Source: NDHA

Refreshing

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Copying information content from one storage media to the same storage media [111] Source: NDHA

Registration

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The "act of giving a record a unique identifier on its entry into a system". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.18) Source: Continuum

Relative Humidity

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of water vapour present in the atmosphere to the amount required to saturate it at the same temperature. Relative humidity varies with temperature." (KA, p.478) Source: Continuum

Render

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. To process a digital object (generally with a software application) in order to view, listen to, or interact with the content. This is usually done in a fashion consistent with the format encoding of the file.

Repository

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The building or room, or part thereof, set aside for the storage of archives and/or intermediate records. Archival repositories are often constructed to meet specific environmental standards designed to ensure the longevity of the records." (KA, p.478) Source: Continuum

See Archives

Representation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An instance of an Intellectual Entity containing the set of stored files and metadata needed to provide a complete and reasonable rendition of that Intellectual Entity for either preservation or access purposes. Source: NDHA

Representation Information

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. The information that maps a Data Object into more meaningful concepts. An example is the ASCII definition that describes how a sequence of bits (i.e., a Data Object) is mapped into a symbol. Source: OAIS

Restricted Access Record

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A record to which access has been restricted. Records can only be restricted if good reason exists or if another enactment requires a record to be withheld from public access. (PRA s4 and s44) Source: Continuum

Restriction

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Any condition imposed on access to records or archives. Source: Continuum

Retention Period

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The period of time, usually based on an estimate of the frequency of current and future use, and taking into account statutory and regulatory provisions, that records need to be retained before their final disposal. Sometimes used to indicate the length of time records are to be retained in offices before being transferred to intermediate storage." (KA, p.479)
  2. The retention period usually commences from the time of the disposal trigger. Source: Continuum

 

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Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An XML-based standard that defines messages for communicating a range of security-related statements about individual parties, including their authentication.

Semantic Web

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Refers to a suite of technologies that aim to enhance the performance of the Internet for the functions of businesses, organisations and individuals by increasing capabilities to interpret and determine meaning in web-based data and information. Source: NZFEAF-RM

See RDF

Sentencing

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Sentencing involves identifying and classifying the records according to the requirements of the disposal authority, for example through annotating physical records, or using metadata in control records (including electronic recordkeeping systems) or business systems. This process is generally a discrete or irregular activity, and the first step of applying the disposal authority. Source: Disposal Standard

Series

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Those records or archives having the same provenance which belong together because: they are part of a discernable filing system (alphabetical, numerical, chronological, or a combination of these); they have been kept together because they result from the same activity; or they are of similar formats and relate to a particular function. A series may consist of only one item. Also referred to as a record series." (KA, p.479) Source: Continuum

See Class

Server

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An application component which responds to requests from a client. Source: TOGAF

Shelf List

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A list of the holdings of an archives arranged sequentially in the order of the contents of each shelf." (KA, p.479) Source: Continuum

See Finding Aids

Simple Digital Object

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A single digital entity (i.e. file). Source: NDHA

Standards

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Records management and recordkeeping standards are authoritative standards to which an organisation is subject or which it chooses to adopt. Standards provide benchmarks for measuring performance and describe best practices in any or all aspects of recordkeeping. Thus standards may function to specify minimum performance levels or describe best practice." (DIRKS, Glossary, p.13)
  2. The standards issued by the Chief Archivist under s27 of the Public Records Act. (PRA, s4) Source: Continuum

Storage

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[T]he function of storing records for future retrieval and use." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.25) Source: Continuum

Structure Information

Digital Continuity Definition(s) 

  1. The information that imparts meaning about how other information is organized. For example, it maps bit streams to common computer types such as characters, numbers, and pixels and aggregations of those types such as character strings and arrays. Source: OAIS

Submission Information Package (SIP)

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. An Information Package that is delivered by the Producer to the OAIS for use in the construction of one or more AIPs. Source: OAIS

Survey

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "The process of gathering information in a systematic and consistent way about records in their administrative context. The most common uses of a survey are: An examination of archives to examine their provenance, original order, and interrelationships prior to commencing full arrangement and description processes. An examination of active or intermediate records noting briefly their nature, systems of arrangement, date ranges, quantities, function, physical condition, reference activity, and rates of accumulation. This information is used to develop disposal schedules, plan conservation, or project space requirements, among other uses. Also referred to as records survey." (KA, p.480) Source: Continuum

 

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The Community Archive

Continuum Definition(s) 

  1. A web-based guide to archival and manuscript holdings of archives, libraries, museums, galleries, schools, and societies across New Zealand. The Community Archives listings may be searched or browsed by a number of criteria. Source: Continuum

See http://thecommunityarchive.org.nz

Thesaurus

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A list of terms that can be used to conduct word searches on a database or to create file or record titles that can be searched." (AAHA, p.119) Source: Continuum

See Controlled Vocabulary

Tracking

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. The process of "creating, capturing, and maintaining information about the movement and use of records". (ISO 15489-2001, Part 1, 3.19) Source: Continuum

Transaction

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. IT Context: An exchange of information between two or more services (or an entity and a service) in the performance of an operation or function. (DRM/SF usage) Source: NZFEAF-RM
  2. Recordkeeping Context: "[T]he smallest unit of business activity. Uses of records are themselves transactions." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.27): Source: Continuum

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "[T]he smallest unit of business activity. Uses of records are themselves transactions." (AS 4390-1996, Part 1, 4.27) Source: Continuum

Transfer

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. Used generally, refers to the transfer of records from one recordkeeping system to another. Used with reference to the Public Records Act, refers to the transfer of control of records to the Chief Archivist, or to a public office or local authority that has taken over the recordkeeping responsibilities of a disestablished public office or local authority. Source: Continuum

Transfer Lists

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. A list of records compiled at the time of transfer. It usually includes item identifier and date range. (Adapted from definition of Box list, KA, p.464) Source: Continuum

Transformation

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A migration of content from one format to another format. Source: Working Group

 

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Unchanged Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Records for which no disposal authority exists and as a result have not been sentenced." (AAHA, p.119) Source: Continuum

Unique Identifier

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A unique identifier is a language-independent label, sign or token that uniquely identifies an object from another object.

See Identifier

 

 

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Version Control

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "A process that allows for the precise placing of individual versions of documents within a continuum." (JISC:PRO, Appendix 3: Glossary, p.17) Source: Continuum

Vital Records

Continuum Definition(s)

  1. "Those records that are essential for the ongoing business of an agency, and without which the agency could not continue to function effectively. The identification and protection of such records is a primary object of records management and disaster planning." (KA, p.481) Source: Continuum

 

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Web Curator Tool

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A tool developed by NLNZ and the British Library for harvesting web sites under the auspices of the International Internet Preservation Consortium. Source: NDHA

 

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XML

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. XML is an abbreviation for eXtensible Markup Language, a computer language for enriching data with information about structure and meaning. It is an open standard, defined by the World Wide Web Consortium and is platform independent.

XML Document

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. A storage unit (i.e. a file) containing XML markup and content. Source: derived from NZFEAF-RM

XML Schema

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. Defines the vocabulary (elements and attributes), the content model (structure, element nesting and text content) and data types (value constraints) of a class of XML documents. Source: derived from NZFEAF-RM

XQuery

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. XML Query (XQuery) is a query language with some programming language features designed to query collections of XML data. Source: derived from NZFEAF-RM

XSLT

Digital Continuity Definition(s)

  1. XSL Transformations (XSLT) is an XML-based, declarative language used for the transformation of XML documents. The original document is not changed; rather, a new XML document is created based on the content of the original document. Source: NZFEAF-RM

 

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